Hagia sophia is a unique, Turkey

Thursday, August 2nd 2012. | Turkey

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Hagia Sophia is a unique monument in world architecture, beauty and functionality has been a good example in construction of countless Ottoman mosques. Hagia Sophia with a remarkable history is a synthesis between east and west. This monument is one of the wonders of the world that remains intact to this day. One can find many attractions in Hagia Sophia – interesting forms of Byzantine architecture, mosaics of the Christian era as well as structures added during the Ottoman era. Hagia Sophia has been a place of Christian worship for 916 years, then converted into a mosque and served Muslims for 481 years. Hagia Sophia Museum was opened in 1935 and since then has attracted thousands of visitors every year. According to Byzantine historians (Theophanes, Nikephoros, grammar Leon) the first building of Hagia Sophia church was established in the reign of Constantius I (324-337 AD). That is a basilica with wooden roof, and burned during the rebellion. There is currently no evidence of this structure. During the reign of emperor Theodosius Hagia Sophia was built for the second time and opened to the public in the year 415 AD. The basilica was again burned down during the Nika Revolt in 532 AD. Some ruins of this building were discovered during excavations in 1936. There is a staircase that shows the entrance to the building, columns, capitals and other fragments of the building. Emperor Justinian (527-565 AD) wanted to build a church bigger than the previous two, which would represent the strength and splendor of the kingdom. The new building of Hagia Sophia was made by two famous architects of that period – Isidoros from Miletos and Anthemios of Tralles. Many columns, capitals, marble and colorful stone was brought to Istanbul from ancient cities in Anatolia and used in various construction works of Hagia Sophia.

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The works which began on December 23, 532 AD and was completed on December 27, 537. The new building consists of a large central nave and two side-aisles, separated by columns, apse, inside and outside the abbey. The size of the inner space of basilica is 100 X 70m and enclosed by a magnificent dome (diameter 30.31 m), supported by four large pillars, 55 m high. Besides the unique architecture of the building, the mosaics are also important artefacts of the period. The oldest mosaics – gold gilded with geometrical designs and flowers – can be found in this monastery inside or next to Naves. Figural mosaics (with images of Jesus Christ, Virgine Maria etc.) from 9th – 12th-century emperor who is located at Door, apse, exit doors and upstairs gallery. After the conquest of Istanbul in 1453, ‘Turkish period’ started called, and some improvements made in Hagia Sophia. Art works around the mihrab includes the best samples of Turkish pottery and calligraphy. The sure is taken from the Quran written in a round dish with a diameter of 7.50 m Mustafa Izzet Efendi Kazasker, a famous Ottoman calligrapher. The names of Allah, Muhammad, Omer, Osman, Ali, Hasan and Huseyin Bekir EBU is written there. On the sidewalls of mihrab there are plates written and granted by Ottoman sultans. Tomb of Sultan Selim II, Sultan Mehmet III, Sultan Murat III as well as some of their relatives, fountain of Sultan Mahmut I, primary school, soup kitchen, library, meeting place and Sultan Abdulmecit (astronomer) houses the mosque timekeeper can be found in the Hagia Sophia Museum . All of the above-mentioned objects, especially graves with their pottery interior design and architecture are excellent examples of Ottoman tradition.

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Hagia sophia

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Hagia sophia

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Hagia sophia

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Hagia sophia

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Hagia sophia

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